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Godzil
Daniel: I would recommend this lecture:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P-code_machine

Also in early 198x there were a C toolchain named Amsterdam Compiler Kit, that a bit like modern LLVM used a VM (named EM) as it's intermediate code. (Funnily, this 30 year old project is still active!)
More here: http://tack.sourceforge.net/ (I've started to work on sanitizing the source, but this is a really huge work)